From Salish Sea Wiki
Both the quantity and quality of surface and ground waters is a large interrelated set of topics, and one of the ecosystem service priorities of government. This page and its associated topic provides an overview of water cycle management.
Local Management of Water
- Most counties have a surface water management work group within a public works department. This group may have some of the authorities of an independent public utility (for example Seattle Public Utilities).
- In some counties, some water management functions may be delegated to a diking or drainage district, a watershed improvement district, or other Special Purpose District.
- Most counties have a land use planning and regulatory workgroup. This group defines land use regulations based on state law, reflected in county codes. Of particular importance for ecosystem management are Critical Area Ordinances and Comprehensive Plans driven by the Growth Management Act which limit activities and determine the intensity of development near water systems, and Shoreline Master Plans driven by the Shoreline Management Act which is intended to specifically prevents net loss of ecological functions near water systems.
- Local governments often use state expertise as Best Available Science for the purpose of informing their Critical Areas Regulation or Shoreline Master Programs.
State Management of Water
- State water laws govern Water Rights, and one kind of water right is a reservation of water for In Stream Flow
- State law also specifies water quality standards, which determine if a body of water is in violation and should be the subject of some kind of corrective action.
- The Washington State Department of Ecology has the greatest authority over water systems, both under state law, and through delegation of federal authority.
- Washington State Department of Commerce is responsible for defining procedures for implementing the Growth Management Act which affects private activities that affect the function of water systems.
- The EPA and PSP identified freshwater quality as one of the Vital Signs resulting in development of a implementation strategy (SSI 2020) which uses Benthic Index of Biological Integrity as a measure of cumulative effectiveness of our protection and restoration work.
Federal Management of Water
- Clean Water Act is the driver of federal water management. Section 404 drives regulation of wetlands. The EPA is responsible for implementing most of the clean water act, however the USACE has specific roles in wetland management, and many federal authorities are delegated to WDOE.
- The clean water act defines what "waters and wetlands of the united states" are under its jurisdiction.
- National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is how jurisdictions and private land owners must obtain a permit to release pollutants. Those NPDES permits include requirements to increase water protection over time.
- When waters of the US exceed standards, this may trigger a Total Maximum Daily Load study, which generates a body of Best Available Science about a specific system.
- Water affects endangered salmon and so federal agencies that effect water quantity or quality are required to consult with NOAA or USFWS (Depending on the species) about whether the program is meeting Endangered Species Act requirements. This affects water quality standards, and flow requirements.
- Clean Water Act
- Composting Toilets
- Effects of Stormwater Pollution on Fish
- In Stream Flow
- Lawrence 2006 stillaguamish temperature TMDL strategy
- Mote et al 2003 preparing for climate change salmon water and forests
- National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
- Pelletier & Bilhimer 2004 stillaguamish temperature TMDL study
- Stanley et al 2012 watershed assessment water model
- Stormwater Monitoring with Mussels
- Total Maximum Daily Load