Cutting and Livestake Production, Processing and Installation
From Salish Sea Wiki
Species and Strategies
General references on physiology and species.
- File:Crowder & Darris 1999 produce cuttings in beds.pdf describes consideration for agricultural production of cuttings.
- File:Darris 2002 native plant cuttings.pdf - perhaps the most extensive testing of native shrub rooting ability and responsiveness to auxin treatment.
- File:Polster 2002 soil bioengineering techniques.pdf a short document with good illustrations from BC, including description of the "live pole drain" strategy.
- File:Cereghino 2004 native cutting thesis.pdf - a thesis with an extensive literature review on field propagation of un-rooted cuttings including interviews with Salish Sea practitioners and a list of likely species for cuttings.
- File:Cereghino 2004 native cutting thesis presentation.pdf - a power point presentation showing essential results of a field trial of snowberry, dogwood, and salmonberry
- File:Cereghino 2006 native cutting fact sheet.pdf - a fact sheet developed based on Cereghino (2004).
- File:Darris 2006 suggestions for cutting installation.pdf describes horticultural considerations for various strategies using stem cuttings in the field.
- File:Hartema et al 2018 willow pole diameter in reed canarygrass.pdf where King County team found that 6' and 1/2" thick cuttings on 3' spacing provided canopy closure in 5 years, as well as cuttings up to 2". This suggests high value in coppice production of thin whips. File:Hartema et al 2015 willow livestake diameter in reed canarygrass.pdf was an earlier report that suggested better performance of thicker cuttings.
- File:Giordanengo & Mandel 2016 willow and cottonwood installation.pdf - another short manual from the inter-mountain west with some good detailed information.
- File:Cereghino 2019 summary of cutting bed installation seattle.pdf - the initial project proposal and design, followed by an email report 14 years after installation describing status of the system.
Biotechnical Erosion Control
Application of cuttings to managing erosion and evolution of streams and rivers.
- File:Bentrup & Hoag 1998 practical stream bioengineering guide.pdf - a thorough description of stream bank work from experienced field staff, and focused on arid environments (Greater Columbia Basin).
- File:Allen & Leech 1997 bioengineering for streams USACE.pdf - also stream bioengineering, but national in scope of more quantitative information about erosion control efficiency (written for engineers).
- Skykomish Braided Reach Project used large fresh cottonwood boles buried in large river bars.
Identifying species based on bark, buds and stem structure.
- File:Gilkey & Packard 1962 oregon winter twig identification.pdf - an old reference with dichotomous key.
- http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/keys.php?Key=2 - a digital multicriteria key that narrows the choices, but doesn't necessarily have good twig pictures.