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During the development of Puget Sound, timber processing was concentrated on shorelines at timber mills. Historical mill sites are often located on filled embayments, and early mill operations resulted in extensive areas of fill, as well as wood waste deposition in the nearshore
- Podger 2013 provides a literature review of sulfid effects on aquatic organisms.
- Breems & Goodman 2009 provides a synthesis of information about how to approach wood waste remediation.
- The relationship between wood waste impacts, and the Model Toxics Control Act and CERCLA is unclear. MTCA provides very limited guidance on NRDA. CERCLA-based NRDA has typically not pursued injury assessment for toxic breakdown products from wood waste.
- Salmon Creek Estuary Fill Removal and Thatcher Bay Wood Waste Remediation are projects that involve wood waste impacts.
- CERCLA and MTCA actions at Puyallup Delta, Snohomish Delta, Port Angeles, Port Gamble Ecosystem and many other sites involve wood waste remediation.
- I have not found any BACI study documenting the effectiveness of different remediation approaches on critical parameters like benthic infauna or pore water sulfide.
- A six inch sand cap was installed on wood waste on the inside of Ediz hook in Port Angeles Harbor 2019 as a test plot by Anchor QEA in collaboration with the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, followed by eelgrass planting and sulfide monitoring.