Toft et al 2013 Habitat Enhancements

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Toft, J.D., A.S. Ogston, S.M. Heerhartz, J.R. Cordell, and E.E. Flemer. 2013. Ecological response and physical stability of habitat enhancements along an urban armored shoreline. Ecological Engineering 57: 97-108

Link to article


  • This paper describes a multi-year effort testing whether shoreline enhancements at the Olympic Sculpture Park in Seattle, WA have improved conditions for fish and invertebrates as compared to armored shorelines.