Oil Pollution Act
The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 was driven by the 11 million gallon spill of the Exxon Valdez in 1989. The act streamlined and strengthened EPA's ability to prevent and respond to catastrophic oil spills. A trust fund financed by a tax on oil is available to clean up spills when the responsible party is incapable or unwilling to do so. The OPA requires oil storage facilities and vessels to submit to the Federal government plans detailing how they will respond to large discharges. EPA has published regulations for above ground storage facilities; the Coast Guard has done so for oil tankers. The OPA also requires the development of Area Contingency Plans to prepare and plan for oil spill response on a regional scale.
- EPA summary of Oil Pollution Act authority - https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-oil-pollution-act
- OPA includes provisions for collecting damages for unpermitted release of oil over the period of contamination through a process called Natural Resource Damage Assessment