Galster & Schwartz 1990 ediz hook case study erosion and mitigation
Galster, Richard W., and Maurice L. Schwartz. “Ediz Hook—A Case History of Coastal Erosion and Rehabilitation.” Journal of Coastal Research, no. 6, 1990, pp. 103–113. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/44779888. Accessed 9 Apr. 2021.
ABSTRACT - Ediz Hook has developed into a 5.6-km-long spit during the Holocene. The available sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. supply has been reduced in this century, from 260,000 m³/yr to 31,000 m³/yr by damming of the Elwha River and protecting the base of an eroding sea cliff, updrift (west) of the spit. Serious erosion necessitated some mitigating action, and in 1977-1978 a project combining rock revetment and beach nourishment was initiated at a cost of $5,600,000. Further rehabilitation, in 1985 at a cost of $970,000, has essentially stabilized the spit. Further beach nourishment will be provided as needed.