Simenstad et al 2011 puget sound nearshore change analysis

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Simenstad, C.A., M. Ramirez, J. Burke, M. Logsdon, H. Shipman, C. Tanner, J. Toft, B. Craig, C. Davis, J. Fung, P. Bloch, K. Fresh, D. Myers, E. Iverson, A. Bailey, P. Schlenger, C. Kiblinger, P. Myre, W. Gerstel, and A. MacLennan. 2011. Historical Change of Puget Sound Shorelines: Puget Sound Nearshore Ecosystem Project Change Analysis. Puget Sound Nearshore Report No. 2011-01. Published by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, Washington, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle, Washington.

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Abstract (Closed to Editing)

This report describe a comprehensive, spatially-explicit analysis (Change Analysis) of changes to nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound—its beaches, estuaries, and deltas—over the past 150+ yr. The earliest land surveys of the General Land Office and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (1850s–1890s) were compared to present conditions (2000–2006). These quantitative changes in the structure of Puget Sound’s shorelines were used with other sources of information to interpret the levels and types of impairment of nearshore ecosystem processes.


This report provides the first systematic sound wide assessment of change in shoreline structure with an inference of change in ecosystem functions goods and services.