Gunderson & Holling 2002 panarchy transformation human natural systems

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Gunderson, L.H., & C.S. Holling. 2002. Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA. 507 pp.


  • Provides early analysis applying systems theory to social and ecological systems.
  • Makes arguments for the observation of complex scale-dependent dynamics of social-ecological systems (SES).
  • Proposes unified theory for cyclic reorganization of social-ecological systems based in part on extension of r/K selection theories of ecological system state and actors.
  • Includes case studies exploring frameworks for adaptive management of complex SESs.