Vegetation and Revegetation
Agriculture and Agroforestry. As a forested Ecoregion with a significant land base being managed for fiber production Forestry is an important topic. Riparian Buffering Functions are particularly important for acquatic habitats, and more braodly, vegetation mediates the Hydrology on a watershed scale. Revegetation is a broad term that describes a variety of practices that we use to modify the structural or compositional qualities of vegetation.
A typical revegetation effort involves three general components: 1) disturbances to create or sustain a niche in which to introduce new species, 2) introduction of that species onto the site with seeds, cuttings, or rooted stock, and 3) some kind of aftercare, such as supplemental water and nutrients, or additional disturbances to favor the introduced species. While we are focused on discrete projects, revegetation occurs in the context of natural vegetative evolution, driven by climate, hydrology, genetics, dispersal, competition, stress, and ongoing disturbance regimes. This page is a master topic page to organize information on the wiki to support revegetation practice.
Being able to systematically identify plant species is the building block for
- Plant Identification provides an overview of resources and tools for identifying species in the plant kingdom.
- The Ecosystem Guild has a native plant list (on a Google Sheet) that integrates USACE wetland indicators and site indicators published by Klinka et al 1989.
Understanding Vegetation Among Landforms
Vegetation varies systematically based on landscape position. which affects the soil parent material and hydrology. The first question at any site, are what are the viable natural vegetations for this landscape position. Resources that observe natural vegetation patterns support this work, and improve a practitioners ability to make observations in the field. A number of general resource consider vegetation across landform.
- DNR Natural Heritage Program provides a range of reports describing composition of natural vegetation.
- Klinka et al 1989 is a seminal description of factors suggested by the presence of species.
- Washington Native Plant Society publishes plant lists that support reference site identification and evaluation.
- File:Cereghino 2009 revegetation nearshore.pdf provides an 11-page introduction to revegetation practice developed for Salish Sea nearshore environments.
- File:Aubry & Potash 2007 olympic native plant notebook.pdf is perhaps the best free reference produced in our region on the mechanics of revegetation.
Uplands and Forests
- File:Chappell 2004 upland plan associations puget trough.pdf - in particular provides a voluminous list of common co-occurring plant communities observed in lowland Puget Sound.
Wetlands and Riparian
- In 2021 WDNRs Natural Heritage Program is still developing its long awaited riparian and wetland classification. https://www.dnr.wa.gov/NHPwetlands
- File:Kunze 1994 puget sound lowland wetland vegetation.pdf describes a Western Washington lowland wetland classification.
- Cramer et al 2012 provides a detailed discussion of riparian vegetation management for fishery restoration.
- Windrope et al 2020 provides "best available science" on Riparian Buffering Functions and is intended as an update to Knutson & Naef 1997
- Guttman 2009 describes backshore Beach vegetation in South Puget Sound and observes patterns in relations to large wood.
- Kunze 1984 describes an inventory of high quality tidal marsh reference sites around Puget Sound.
- Kunze & Cornelius 1982 provides a similar resource for tidal wetlands on the Washington outer coast.
- Jefferson 1974 provides a seminal overview of Oregon coastal marsh composition over elevation and environmental controls which includes species common in the Salish Sea.
- Eilers 1974 provides a detailed analysis of a estuarine island.
There are notably few resources for designing composition and structure of freshwater tidal vegetation.
- Kunze & Cornelius 1982 provides a characterization of community composition in columbia river "surge plain" wetlands.
- File:Cereghino 2004 freshwater tidal revegetation zones.pdf offers an analysis of freshwater tidal data using inundation duration as a basis for zonation as a surrogate for redox.
Disturbance and Soil Restoration
How to we create a niche in the field that is suitable for propagation?
- Soil Restoration - on sites with severe distrubance, reinitiation of soil structures and processes may be critical to rapidly establishing vegetation.
- Mulching Strategies - surface application of organic material has the dual function of supressing existing vegetation and fueling soil processes.
- Tillage Strategies - for millennia, tillage has been used to create niches for introducing plants. Now we have machines.
Propagation and Planting Technique
How do we efficiently introduce species into a vegetation?
- Cutting and Livestake Production, Processing and Installation is a topic page focused on livestakes and use of unrooted cuttings in the field, and is currently holding materials for biotechnical erosion control.
- Herbivory Protection - describes strategies for reducing damage to new outplantings.
How to we favor target composition after propagation?
The following workgroups provide materials with Salish Sea genetics
Evaluation and Monitoring
How do we qualitatively and quantitatively observe vegetation?
- Elzinga et al 1998 provides a strong basis in monitoring species populations as well as studying communities.
- File:Cereghino 2009 introduction to vegetation monitoring.pdf - a introductory slide show talking about why and how to observe vegetation in restoration.
Flora pages describe what we know about individual species listed by Genus
- File:Hibbs 1996 red alder stand management.pdf
- File:Minore 1983 thuja plicata literature review.pdf
- File:Puettmann et al 1993 alder density management.pdf
- File:Vance et al 2001 non timber forest products.pdf
Other Vegetation Pages
Vegetation describe documents and topics related to vegetation dynamics
- Bull Kelp
- Burdick et al 2001 salinity affects phragmites
- Crain et al 2004 mechanisms driving salt marsh composition
- Cutting and Livestake Production, Processing and Installation
- De Leeuw et al. 1991 factors affecting intertidal salinity gradient
- Delta sediment dynamics and vegetation
- Eilers 1974 nehalem marsh biogeography
- Ewing 1986 skagit tidal marsh productivity
- Factors preventing development of productive delta marsh vegetation
- Fagherazzi et al 2012 salt marsh evolution models
- Herbivory Protection
- High Resolution Aerial Imagery Change Detection
- Hutchinson 1988 salt tolerance of plants
- Kirwan & Murray 2007 tidal marsh evolution model
- Kirwan et al 2008 goose impacts on delta wetlands
- Klinka et al 1989 indicator plants British Columbia
- Land Cover and Development
- Moffat & Bending 2000 soil restoration loose tipping
- Morris 2007 biomass affects salt marsh accretion
- Morris et al 2002 coastal wetland sea level rise
- Mudd et al 2009 tidal marsh, sea level, productivty and carbon
- Murcia et al 2014 novel ecosystem critique
- North Sound Riparian Conference
- Plant Identification
- Seed Rain
- Simenstad et al 2004 urban estuary restoration challenge
- Soil Restoration
- Vegetation and Revegetation
- Vegetation Effects on Insects
- Viability of assisted vs. unassisted development of tidal fresh swamp
- Category:Delta sediment dynamics and vegetation
- File:Allen & Leech 1997 bioengineering for streams USACE.pdf
- File:Aubry & Potash 2007 olympic native plant notebook.pdf
- File:Bentrup & Hoag 1998 practical stream bioengineering guide.pdf
- File:Celedonia 2002 forest and scrub-shrub restoration benchmarks.pdf
- File:Cereghino 2004 native cutting thesis presentation.pdf
- File:Cereghino 2004 native cutting thesis.pdf
- File:Cereghino 2009 introduction to vegetation monitoring.pdf
- File:Cereghino 2009 revegetation nearshore.pdf
- File:Cereghino 2019 summary of cutting bed installation seattle.pdf
- File:Chappell 2004 terrestrial plant associations Puget trough.pdf
- File:Chappell 2004 upland plan associations puget trough.pdf
- File:Crowder & Darris 1999 produce cuttings in beds.pdf
- File:Darris 2002 native plant cuttings.pdf
- File:Darris 2006 suggestions for cutting installation.pdf
- File:Gilkey & Packard 1962 oregon winter twig identification.pdf
- File:Giordanengo & Mandel 2016 willow and cottonwood installation.pdf
- File:Guttman 2009 backshore vegetation.pdf
- File:Hartema et al 2015 willow livestake diameter in reed canarygrass.pdf
- File:Hartema et al 2018 willow pole diameter in reed canarygrass.pdf
- File:Hibbs 1996 red alder stand management.pdf
- File:Hill 2002 keyline yeomans and whole farm design.pdf
- File:Kunze & Cornelius 1982 washington outer coast vegetation baseline.pdf
- File:Kunze 1994 puget sound lowland wetland vegetation.pdf
- File:Pierce 2011 high resolution aerial imagery change detection.pdf
- File:Polster 2002 soil bioengineering techniques.pdf
- File:Smart & Dick 1999 propagate establish wetland plants.pdf
- File:Watershed Company 2021 WCC restoration methods evaluation.pdf