Difference between revisions of "Beaches"
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==Beach Restoration ==
Revision as of 16:35, 19 April 2021
Beaches dominate much of Puget Sound’s shoreline. They are characterized by the active transport of sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. by wave action. They can be divided into those associated with coastal bluffs, where the coastline has retreated landward, and those associated with barrier beaches, where sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. has been deposited seaward of the original coastline. Barriers are numerous and include spits, tombolos, cuspate forelands and a variety of other forms. Most Puget Sound beaches (other than the pocket beaches along rocky coasts) exhibit net longshore transport of sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. and the development of discrete littoral drift cells, within which sources and sinks for sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. and a direction of net transport can be defined. (from Shipman 2008)
Beaches are organized into sites based on the extent littoral drift cells. The 2500 miles of Puget Sound shoreline has been divided into 744 distinct littoral cells where the presence of bluff-backed beach indicates the likely presence of sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. input and transport along retreating coastal bluffs (Cereghino et al 2012).
Littoral drift cells are units of beach that include a source of sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment., conveyance of sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. along the shoreline, and a sink for sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment., either at a convergence zonewhere beach sediment flowing in from two directions accumulates, frequently forming barrier beaches where two drift cells merge, or offshore below the depth of wave action. Shipman 2008 differentiates between beach systems with littoral drift, and pocket beaches where sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. is relatively contained.
- A variety of Nearshore Salmon Recovery Planning efforts have considered salmon use of beaches.
- The ShoreZone Geodatabase provides a range of information about beach conditions beyond that provided by the PSNERP geodatabase including biological data.
- George Kaminsky at Washington State Department of Ecology is completing innovative boat-based LIDAR mapping of beach profile as part of a Mapping Bluff and Beach Change effort.
- The US Army Corps of Engineers has jurisdiction over beach modification, and regulates construction below ordinary high water in Puget Sound. NOAA has recommended regulation from Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT).
- The Shoreline Master Program managed by WDOE requires jurisdictions to develop shoreline management plans that include protection and restoration strategies, and mandates "no net loss of shoreline ecological functions".
- There are limited data to describe natural rates of bluff erosion, and the relationship between sedimentparticles of clay, silt, sand, gravel, or cobble, transported by water, are called sediment. supply and beach structure. The Measuring Coastal Bluff Recession Rates Throughout the Puget Sound Region effort by Coastal Geologic Services uses the aerial photograph record to estimate beach recession rate.
- Megan Dethier is noteworthy as a long time regional research scientist that has been studying Effects of bulkhead removal on beaches and their biota and Dethier 1990 remains a seminal work in linking beach structure to biotic communities, and is used in the ShoreZone Geodatabase.
- The ESRP program provides grants for beach protection and restoration.
- Marine Resource Committees provide a unique advisory function on coastal issues to Northern Puget Sound Counties, with support from the Northwest Straits Commission.
Other Beach topics:
- Bangor Drift Cell
- Broad Spit Drift Cell
- Carkeek to Everett Beach System
- Cherry Point Driftcell
- East Dyes Drift Cell
- East Nooksack Drift Cell
- Elwha Drift Cell
- Neill Point East
- Piner Point West
- Point Defiance Drift Cell
- Port Townsend Ecosystem
- SPU 1008
- SPU 2071
- SPU 2086
- SPU 7086
- Titlow Beach
- West Camano Drift Cell
Beach DocumentsThe following pages cite documents about beaches:
- Dethier et al 2016 impacts of armoring
- Finlayson 2005 lowland puget sound topobathymetry
- Fresh 2006 juvenile salmon in nearshore
- Galster & Schwartz 1990 ediz hook case study erosion and mitigation
- Gelfenbaum et al 2006 nearshore research strategy
- Hayes et al 2011 bulltrout use in skagit bay
- Quinn et al 2012 surf smelt spawning camano island
- Ruggiero et al 2013 coastal shoreline change
- Seattle 20xx green shorelines outreach.pdf
- Vines et al 2000 creosote and herring spawn
- Weiner et al 2018 mapping bluffs and beaches
The following beach documents are uploaded to this wiki:
- Breems & Goodman 2009 wood waste assessment and remediation.pdf
- Cereghino 2010 beach ecosystem restoration programs.pdf
- Cereghino 2014 DRAFT Integrated Nearshore Assessment.docx
- Cereghino 2014 DRAFT nimble spatial reassessment.pdf
- Dethier 1990 puget sound shoreline classification.pdf
- Drummond et al 2018 Poster edgewater bulkhead removal and boat lidar.pdf
- Ehinger et al 2015 DRAFT beach habitat value.pdf
- Ehinger et al 2015 nearshore habitat value HEA.pdf
- ESRP webinar 11-9-20.pdf
- Finlayson 2006 geomorphology of puget sound beaches.pdf
- Fresh et al 2004 guidance restoration protection.pdf
- Friends of San Juans 2004 forage fish restoration and protection.pdf
- Friends of the San Juans 2014 armoring impacts and sea level rise.pdf
- Gerstel et al 2012 kitsap sediment supply poster.pdf
- Gerstel et al 2012 kitsap shoreline sediment source analysis.pdf
- Goetz et al 2004 PSNERP restoration principles
- Goetz et al 2004 PSNERP restoration principles.pdf
- Guttman 2009 backshore vegetation.pdf
- Harper & Ward 2001 beach spawning fish and shorezone types.pdf
- Henderson et al 2018 Poster boat lidar shoreline inventory.pdf
- Johannessen & MacLennen 2007 beaches and bluffs white paper.pdf
- Kramer et al 2010 shoreline no net loss framework.pdf
- Kramer et al 2010 using PSNERP for SMPs.pdf
- Krueger et al 2010 sea level rise on forage fish spawning.pdf
- Lanksbury et al 2017 mussel monitoring survey 2015-2016.pdf
- MacDonald et al 2013 elwha nearshore workshop proceedings.pdf
- MacLennan et al 2017 north sound feeder bluff armor removal study.pdf
- Norris & Fraser 2009 eelgrass near port angeles.pdf
- NOSC 2005 intertidal forage fish spawning sites Jefferson Kitsap Mason counties.pdf
- Pentilla 2007 forage fish marine puget sound.pdf
- Penttila 2001 shading and surf smelt egg survival.pdf
- Redmond et al 2005 nearshore salmon recovery plan.pdf
- Reeves et al 2002 shorezone and beach spawning fish presentation.pdf
- Rossenkotter et al 2007 nearshore salmon recovery gap analysis.pdf
- Seattle 20xx green shorelines outreach.pdf
- Wait et al 2007 west whidbey nearshore fish use.pdf
- WDNR 2013 piling and creosote removal BMP.pdf
- Weiner et al 2018 Poster high resolution mapping puget sound shoreline.pdf
- Whitman & Hawkins 2014 armoring impacts of forage fish.pdf
- Whitman et al 2012 san juan salmon recovery planning.pdf
- Zu Ermgassen et al 2016 oyster restoration objectives for ecosystem services.pdf